Dr. Marawan Shahin, Professor of Hadith and its Sciences, Faculty of Usul Ad-Din (Theology),Al-Azhar Univ. states: “It is well established in Islam that relations between Muslims and non-Muslims are based on equality and justice so long as non-Muslims are not involved in transgression against us, helping others to transgress against us, or expelling us out of our lands. If they committed none of the above matters, they are guaranteed freedom of worship, protection for their places of worship, property, etc. They are also given justice and kind treatment.

As regards verses on fighting against non-Muslims, when we read the Glorious Qur’an and collect all verses on fighting, you will find that we should only fight those who fight against us.

No verse in the Qur’an indicates that we should humiliate non-Muslims when gathering jizyah from them. It means that we collect jizyah from them when they are subservient to the Muslim state i.e. they are not repelling against the Islamic ruling. Thus, Islam never urges its followers to humiliate non-Muslims when collecting Jizyah from them. If that happened by any ruler in any time, it is an individual behavior and Islam does not order to show any kind of disrespect or humiliation towards non-Muslims when collecting Jizyah from them. On the contrary, there are many good examples for the most kind ways of collecting Jizyah.”