The knowledge that Muslims are to acquire with regard to `aqeedah has to do with true belief in Almighty Allah, true knowledge about Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), Allah’s Book, the principles of creed with regard to theology, prophethood, and the Unseen. Knowledge about such fields are to be based on Allah’s Book, the authentic Sunnah, and scientific discoveries that are considered signs of Allah’s Existence. It should not be based on the philosophical arguments that dominated the intellectual life during a period of the Muslim nation’s history.
Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi states the following: “What should be emphasized in that regard is that Muslims are to get the religious knowledge that enables them to know their Lord on a basis of true faith, to know Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), to believe in his Prophethood, and to know that the Qur’an is sent to them from Allah Almighty. They are also to know the principles of the Islamic creed with regard to theology, prophethood, and the Unseen.
Knowledge in these fields is to be based on Almighty Allah’s Book, for in it is clear evidence that convinces the reason, enlightens the heart, and keeps one away from blind imitation and futile arguments that prevailed in the science of theology. Such futile arguments were influenced by the Greek philosophy, and hence, they corrupted the thinking of the elite and cast doubts upon the belief of the ordinary people. That is why the moderate Muslim scholars have said that is necessary to give more weight to the style of argumentation in the Qur’an than to that of Greek philosophy.
What is required from Muslims regarding `aqeedah is to study the Islamic creed on two bases: studying the Glorious Qur’an and the modern natural sciences.
1. As for the Glorious Qur’an, it is not only the reports and the textual evidence in it that are to be taken into account; there are also the proofs that assert the Oneness of Almighty Allah and the prophethood of Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him). Allah Almighty says: “The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur’an, a guidance for mankind, and clear proofs of the guidance, and the Criterion (of right and wrong)” (Al-Baqarah: 185).
The Qur’an has challenged the atheists and disbelievers and showed them “clear proofs” of its truthfulness. Muslims are also to bear in mind that the authentic Sunnah explains the Qur’an, and is in conformity with it.
2. As to the modern natural sciences, there are scientific discoveries that prove to those who have doubts about the truth that Allah is One and that He Almighty has created this world in the best form. This scientific evidence conforms with what is dealt with in the Qur’an and Sunnah in that regard. It proves true what Allah says in this verse: “We shall show them Our portents on the horizons and within themselves until it will be manifest unto them that it is the Truth. Doth not thy Lord suffice, since He is Witness over all things?” (Fussilat: 53)