In the first place, we would like to make it clear that the Qur’an stands as the unique and inimitable book of Allah that contains guidance and knowledge for mankind.
The Qur’an is the pure word of Allah has been revealed to provide clear guidance for humanity in matters of faith and practice. Its relationship vis-à-vis previous revelations or scriptures is to affirm and confirm the pristine truths revealed to all previous prophets and messengers, while correcting or dispelling the numerous accretions, interpolations, and aberrant interpretations that had marred or clouded the pristine truth.
Sheikh Ahmad Kutty, a senior lecturer and Islamic scholar at the Islamic Institute of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, states: To start with, let me first cite the relevant Qur’anic verse: (And the Jews say, “Ezra is God’s son,” while the Christians say, “The Christ is God’s son.” Such as the saying which they utter with their mouths, following in spirit assertions made in earlier times by people who denied the truth!) (At-Tawbah 9:30).
In order to discern the true import of the above Qur’anic statement, it is imperative that we take into full account the Qur’anic understanding of its own mission: It has been revealed to provide clear guidance for humanity in matters of faith and practice. Its relationship vis-à-vis previous revelations or scriptures is to affirm and confirm the pristine truths revealed to all previous prophets and messengers, while correcting or dispelling the numerous accretions, interpolations, and aberrant interpretations that had marred or clouded the pristine truth. These aberrations were nowhere more evident than in their excessive veneration of certain personalities that was bordering on shirk, confining God’s favor exclusively to themselves and apart from the rest of humanity, and practicing extreme legalism in religion. (See, for instance, the following verses: 27:76; 17:9; 16:89; 5:48; 16:64; 6:92; 2:111; 2:135; 4:171; 5:77; 12:111.)
Now, coming more precisely to the question you have raised, it is important to note that according to almost all classical commentators of the Qur’an, the above charge is directed more specifically to the Jews of Arabia rather than to all Jews, for according to a report from Ibn `Abbas (Prophet’s Companion and celebrated commentator of the Qur’an), some of the Jews of Madinah once said to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), “How could we follow you when you have forsaken our qiblah and do not consider Ezra as a son of God?” Furthermore, to quote the late Muhammad Asad, who was himself a convert from Judaism to Islam: “On the other hand, Ezra occupies a unique position in the esteem of all Jews and has always been praised by them in the most extravagant terms. It was he who restored and codified the Torah after it had been lost during the Babylonian Exile, and ‘edited’ it; thus ‘he promoted the establishment of an exclusive, legalistic type of religion that become dominant in later Judaism’ (Encyclopedia Britannica).
“Ever since then, Ezra has been venerated to such a degree that his verdicts on the Law of Moses have come to be regarded by the Talmudists as being practically equivalent to the Law itself, which, in Qur’anic ideology, amounts to the unforgivable sin of shirk inasmuch as it implies the elevation of a human being to the status of a quasi-divine law-giver and the blasphemous attribution to him—albeit metaphorically—of the quality of “sonship” in relation to God. Compare in this connection Exodus 4:22-23 (“Israel is My son”) or Jeremiah 31:9 (“I am a father to Israel”): expressions to which, because of their idolatrous implications, the Qur’an takes strong exception.” (Muhammad Asad, The Message of the Qur’an. Gibraltar: Dar al-Andalus, 1980, pp. 262-263).