Generally speaking, the term Muslim minority refers to a smaller group of Muslims living in a majority non-Muslim country. Minorities have rights and duties that are stipulated in national and international laws. They have to respect the law of the country without compromising their faith or identity.

Sheikh Muhammad Nur Abdullah, President of the ISNA (Islamic Society of North America) and member of the Fiqh Council of North America, states: “Muslim Minorities” refer to Muslims living in non-Muslim countries where the majority of the population are not Muslims, and Muslims are subject to laws other than Islamic laws. The fiqh of Muslim minorities focuses on educating Muslims on how to strike a balance between their religious obligations and their citizenship duties; how to adapt themselves to the laws that are not in conformity with their faith; how to live Islam in non-Muslim countries; and how to interact with the broader society to achieve the common good for all.