In an attempt to furnish you with a Fatwa regarding the wisdom behind the prohibition of Riba, we would like to cite for you what the eminent Muslim scholar Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, stated in his well-known book The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam, regarding the issue:
“Islam permits increase in capital through trade. Referring to this, Allah Almighty says, “O you who believe, do not consume your property among yourselves wrongfully, but let there be trade by mutual consent…” (An-Nisa’: 29)
At the same time, Islam blocks the way for anyone who tries to increase his capital through lending on usury or interest (Rriba), whether it is at a low or a high rate, reprimanding the Jews for taking usury, even though they had been prohibited to do so.
Among the last revelations are the following verses of Surat al-Baqarah: “O you who believe, fear Allah and give up what remains due to you of interest if you are indeed believers. And if you do not, then be warned of war (against you) by Allah and His Messenger, while if you repent you shall have your capital. Do not do wrong and you shall not be wronged.” (Al-Baqarah: 278-279)
The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) declared war on usury and those who deal in it; he pointed out its dangers to society, saying, “When usury and fornication appear in a community, the people of that community render themselves deserving of the punishment of Allah.” (Reported by Al-Hakim; Abu Y’ala has reported something similar on good authority)
Judaism, prior to Islam, had also prohibited interest. In the Old Testament we read, “If you lend money to any of my people with you who is poor, you shall not be to him as a creditor, neither shall you require interest from him.” (Ex. 22:25)
As for Christianity, the Gospel according to Luke reads, Give away to every one who begs of you, and of him who takes away from your goods, do not demand them back again. (Luke 6:30)
It is, therefore, sad to see that the Old Testament has been subjected to such distortions that the meaning of “my people,” which originally had a broader application, later became restricted to the Jews alone, as we read in Deuteronomy, You may lend on interest to a foreigner, but to your brother you shall not lend on inters”. (Deut. 23:20)
The wisdom behind the prohibition of interest
The strict prohibition of interest in Islam is a result of its deep concern for the moral, social, and economic welfare of mankind. Muslim scholars have sound arguments explaining the wisdom of this prohibition, and recent studies have confirmed their opinions, with some additions and extensions of their arguments.
We confine ourselves to what Imam al-Razi says in his tafsir of the Qur’an:
First: The taking of interest implies appropriating another person’s property without giving him anything in exchange, because one who lends one dirham for two dirhams gets the extra dirham for nothing. Now, a man’s property is for (the purpose of) fulfilling his needs and it has great sanctity, according to the hadith, “A man’s property is as sacred as his blood.” (Reported by Abu Na’eem) This means that taking it from him without giving him something in exchange is haram.
Second: Dependence on interest prevents people from working to earn money, since the person with dirhams can earn an extra dirham through interest, either in advance or at a later date, without working for it. The value of work will consequently be reduced in his estimation, and he will not bother to take the trouble of running a business or risking his money in trade or industry. This will lead to depriving people of benefits, and the business of the world cannot go on without industries, trade and commerce, building and construction, all of which need capital at risk. This, from an economic point of view, is unquestionably a weighty argument.
Third: Permitting the taking of interest discourages people from doing good to one another, as is required by Islam. If interest is prohibited in a society, people will lend to each other with good will, expecting back no more than what they have loaned, while if interest is made permissible the needy person will be required to pay back more on loans (than he has borrowed), weakening his feelings of good will and friendliness toward the lender. (This is the moral aspect of the prohibition of interest.)
Fourth: The lender is very likely to be wealthy and the borrower poor. If interest is allowed, the rich will exploit the poor, and this is against the spirit of mercy and charity. (This is the social aspect of the prohibition of interest.) (Tafsir by al-Fakhr al-Deen al-Razi, vol. 7, p. 4.)
Thus, in a society in which interest is lawful, the strong benefit from the suffering of the weak. As a result, the rich become richer and the poor poorer, creating socio-economic classes in the society separated by wide gulfs. Naturally, this generates envy and hatred among the poor toward the rich, and contempt and callousness among the rich toward the poor. Conflicts arise, the socio-economic fabric is rent, revolutions are born, and social order is threatened. Recent history amply illustrates the dangers to the peace and stability of nations inherent in interest-based economies.”