Sheikh Ahmad Kutty, a senior lecturer and Islamic scholar at the Islamic Institute of Toronto, Ontario, Canada , states: “Jumu’ah is fard ‘ayn (individual obligation) and therefore mandatory on every adult male Muslim (females are exempt for reasons of responsibilities of nurturing, mothering, etc.) who are healthy and are not prevented from attending by other valid reasons. As for the radius of the mosque that makes it obligatory, in the past they based it on ability to hear the adhan; apparently, they differed on estimating the reasonable limit. Today however living as we are in the modern cities where means of transport are readily available, a person should make it to the mosque as long as he can do so, given his circumstances. Everyone should decide this matter based on his own individual conscience – a conscience that is aware of standing before Allah for the final reckoning. May Allah inspire us to do what is right always –amen.”