Sheikh Sayyed Sabiq, states in his well-known book, Fiqh As-Sunnah, regarding the sunnah prayer before and after Jumu`ah: “Nawafl before salatul Jumu’ah It is a sunnah to offer supererogatory prayers before al-Jumu’ah until the imam arrives. After the imam’s arrival, one should no longer offer any salah, save for the prayer of greeting the mosque (tahayyatul masjid) which may be performed quickly during the khutbah unless one comes at the end of the khutbah and would not have the time [i.e., before the actual salah begins] to perform tahayyatul masjid.
Ibn ‘Umar used to perform a long prayer before al-Jumu’ah and then two rak’at after it, and he said that the Prophet used to do so. This is related by Abu Dawud. Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Whoever makes ghusl on the day of Jumu’ah and then goes to the mosque and prays what has been prescribed for him, and remains quiet while the imam delivers the khutbah, and then prays with the imam, he will have forgiven for him what is between that Jumu’ah and the next and an additional three days.” This is related by Muslim.
Jabir reports that a man came to the mosque on Jumu’ah while the Prophet was delivering the khutbah. The Prophet inquired of him: “Did you offer the salah?” The man replied: “No!” He told him: “Pray two rak’at.” This is related by the group. In one narration it states: “If one of you comes to the mosque on the day of Jumu’ah and the imam is delivering the khutbah, he should pray two rak’at and make them quick.” This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawud. In another narration, it is stated: “If one of you comes to the mosque on the day of Jumu’ah and the imam has already arrived, he should offer two rak’at.” This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
It is a sunnah to pray four rak’at or two rak’at after al-Jumu’ah: Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Whoever is to pray after the Jumu’ah should pray four rak’at.” This is related by Muslim, Abu Dawud, and at-Tirmizhi.
Ya’la ibn Umayyah reports that he heard the Prophet recite, while on the pulpit: “And they cry: O Malik!…” (az-Zukhruf 77). This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Ibn ‘Umar says: “The Prophet would pray two rak’at in his house on the day of Jumu’ah.” This is related by the group.
Ibn al-Qayyim says: “After the Prophet finished the Jumu’ah, he would enter his house and pray two rak’at, and he ordered those who prayed the Jumu’ah to pray four rak’at after it.
Our sheikh Ibn Taimiyyah says: ‘When he prayed in the mosque, he would pray four [rak’at], and when he prayed in his house, he would pray two rak’at.’ I say: this is what the hadith is pointing to. Abu Dawud records from ibn ‘Umar that when he prayed in the mosque, he would pray four rak’at, and when he prayed in his house, he would pray two rak’at. Also, in the two Sahihs it is reported from ibn ‘Umar that the Prophet would pray two rak’at in his house after the Friday salah.”
If one prays four rak’at, then, according to some, he is to pray them all connected, while others hold that he is to pray two rak’at, make the taslim, followed by another two rak’at. It is preferred to pray them in one’s house. If one prays them in the mosque, he should change his place of prayer after the Friday salah.
Concerning any sunnah prayer before the Friday salah, Ibn Taimiyyah writes: “The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) never offered any salah after the azhan and before the Friday salah, and no one has ever related such an act from him. During the Prophet’s time, there was only one azhan and that was made when the Prophet sat upon the pulpit. Bilal would make the azhan and then the Prophet would give the two khutbahs. Next, Bilal would make the iqamah and the Prophet would lead the people in salah. It is not possible that the Prophet would have made a salah after the azhan nor anyone else among the Muslims who prayed with the Prophet could have done so. And we have no evidence to show that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) prayed in his house before going out to the mosque on Friday. He did not specify any time for any salah before the Friday salah. What he said was meant to exhort those going early to the mosque on Friday to engage themselves in prayer. He said: ‘Whoever goes out early and walks and does not ride to the mosque and prays what has been prescribed [by Allah] for him…’ That has been related from the Prophet’s companions. When they would reach the mosque on Friday, they would pray whatever amount was easy for them. Some of them prayed ten rak’at and some prayed twelve and some only eight and others less than that. For this reason, most of the scholars are of the opinion that there is no sunnah prayer with a specified number of rak’ah or time, before aljumu’ah, for there is nothing either in the actions or statements of the Prophet to support or confirm it.”