We would like to quote for you the following from the book “Islam Exposes the Biased Attempts to Discredit It” by Dr. Mahmoud Hamdy Zaqzouk, the Egyptian Minister of Endowments and former professor at the Faculty of Theology at Al-Azhar University: “Was the Qur’an compiled from previously revealed scriptures?
1- Had the Qur’an been contrived from old scriptures, Muhammad’s adversaries would not have ignored the matter and remained silent. They would undoubtedly have seized the opportunity to accuse him to that effect. All their allegations were unfounded and lacked proof. The Qur’an itself has already mentioned these allegations and their refutation.
2- The Qur’an includes many laws, instructions and commands which did not exist in the previous scriptures. Furthermore, the Qur’an contains narratives with detailed accounts of previous generations in addition to prophecies which were fulfilled. An example of this was the final outcome of the conflict between the Romans and Persians, the events of which were unknown to Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), his people and the followers of Judaism and Christianity.
3- The Qur’an urged people to acquire knowledge and to respect the human mind and intellect. Accordingly, based on Islam’s new teachings and rulings, the Muslims were able, in a very short time, to establish a civilization which replaced the preceding civilization and flourished for many centuries. Had the Qur’an been compiled from the previous divine religions why then did these religions not include the aforementioned precept and teachings and did not play the same role as Islam?
4- The Qur’an is a book the style of which is consistent and eloquent. Had it been compiled from other scriptures it would have been incoherent, contradictory and inconsistent due to the alleged various sources. Moreover, the Qur’an, always addresses one’s sense and reasoning and does not include fables and myths. It relies upon evidence and facts and demands the same of its adversaries. Allah’s says: “Say: Bring your proof, if ye are truthful!” (An-Naml: 64) This approach is considered a completely new approach and does not exist in any previous scripture.

In addition to the previous authentic refutation, one may add:
1- The Qur’an related facts totally unknown to the People of the Books. For example it narrated the story of Zakariah and the birth of the Virgin Mary and his guardianship of her. The Qur’an also devoted whole chapter to the Virgin Mary, which is unparalleled in the New Testament. Where could Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) possibly have acquired these facts?
2- It is related in Exodus that it was Pharaoh’s daughter who adopted Moses as a baby, whereas the Qur’an states that Pharaoh’s wife found him and adopted him. We also read Exodus that “Aron fashioned the gold and moulded the calf …” that was worshipped by the Jews, whereas the Qur’an states that Samiri was the culprit and that Aron was innocent.
3- If the Qur’an had been derived from the Holy Scriptures of the Jews and Christians, why did Islam reject the principle of the Trinity which is a fundamental belief in Christianity? Why did Islam also reject the belief in the crucifixion of Christ, redemption, inherited sin and the divinity of Christ?
4- The Qur’an presents the Prophets of Allah as ideals of morality and virtue, whereas the Old Testament states that some of them
committed sins, and this is incompatible with the veneration accorded to them by Islam.
5- Religious observances commanded in the Qur’an such as prayer, fasting, obligatory charity and the pilgrimage to Ka`bah, in addition to the instructions and teachings stated as to the manner of how each observance is to be performed are matters that are unparalleled and are not mentioned in any other religion. The five daily prayers are performed in a certain manner at appointed times with the recital of certain specific verses of the Qur’an. Fasting entails total abstinence from food drink and physical desire from dawn till sunset. Charity varies in quantity and the way that is given. The Pilgrimage entails circling around the Ka`bah, being assembled in great gathering at Mount Arafat, going to and forth seven times between As-Safa and Al-Marwa, and stoning Satan. These are all religious observances, which are specifically related to Islam. Which religion could possibly have been the source of these religious observances?”

Based on the above, it has become crystal clear to all that Islam, in general, and the Qur’an, in particular, is something great and unique. Needless to say that Islam has made lawful to people things that were previously made totally prohibited. In surat Al-An`am, we read: “ Say: I find not in that which is revealed unto me aught prohibited to an eater that he eat thereof, except it be carrion, or blood poured forth, or swineflesh for that verily is foul or the abomination which was immolated to the name of other than Allah. But whoso is compelled (thereto), neither craving nor transgressing, (for him) lo ! your Lord is Forgiving, Merciful. Unto those who are Jews We forbade every animal with claws. And of the oxen and the sheep forbade We unto them the fat thereof save that upon the backs or the entrails, or that which is mixed with the bone. That We awarded them for their rebellion. And lot We verily are Truthful.”(Al-An`am:145-146)
Almighty Allah makes it clear to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and all Muslims that the Glorious Qur’an is totally different from all previous laws; it is unique in its nature. Allah says: “ And unto thee have We revealed the Scripture with the truth, confirming whatever Scripture was before it, and a watcher over it. So judge between them by that which Allah hath revealed, and follow not their desires away from the truth which hath come unto thee. For each We have appointed a divine law and a traced out way.”(Al-Ma’idah:48)
Here, we would like to highlight the point that, for example, the Jewish legislation ordered for the killing of a person as a way of accepting his repentance. Accordingly, when a person committed a sin and later wanted to repent, he would be subject to killing as a sign of showing genuine repentance and for his repentance to be accepted. This is mentioned in the Qur’an in the verse that reads: “And when Moses said unto his people: ‘O my people! Ye have wronged yourselves by your choosing of the calf (for worship) so turn in penitence to your Creator, and kill (the guilty) yourselves. That will be best for you with your Creator and He will relent toward you. Lo! He is the Relenting, the Merciful.’”(Al-Baqarah: 54)
In the law imbedded in the Qur’an the case is totally different, for winning Allah’s forgiveness needs nothing more than showing repentance and regret for the previous sin, i.e., in order to be forgiven for any sin, a person is asked to show repentance to Allah and make a covenant never to transgress the limits again or to commit any sin.
How unique and great the Qur’an is! It can never be claimed that it is fabricated or derived from other laws. It is unique in nature, in rules and in the guidance which it showers on the whole human race.