Dr.Monzer Kahf, a prominent economist and counselor states: “Jizya applies when you conquer a foreign land in a war or surrender without war. It does not apply when you establish a country together Muslims and non-Muslims. This is what the Prophet, PBUH, did when he came to Madinah and later when he conquered other lands in war or by surrender before a war broke.

As such, and historically, the amount of Jizya was determined by the circumstances taking into consideration the affordability of the persons on whom it is imposed and it varied from zero to a percentage of the income that also varies from zero to 5%. This is of course only historically.”