Prayer occupies a great status in Islam that is not shared by any other act of worship. It is the pillar of the religion, which cannot stand without it. Mu’adh ibn Jabal (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Shall I not tell you of the head of the whole matter and its pillar and top?” I (Mu’adh) said, “Yes, O Messenger of Allah.” He said, “The head of the matter is Islam, its pillar is prayer and its top is jihad.” (Narrated by al-Tirmidhi) Establishing prayer means performing prayer in full with all its words and actions, at the appointed times.
With regard to the topic, Dr. Rajab Abu Mleeh, said,
“Du`a during Sujud is stated by the authentic hadiths of the Prophet (peace be upon him) who said, “I have been forbidden to recite the Qur’an when bowing or prostrating. As for bowing, glorify your Lord therein, and as for prostrating, strive in du’a’, for it is deserving of a response (from your Lord).” (Reported by Muslim) Also, the Prophet is reported to have said, “The closest that a person is to his Lord, is when he is prostrating, so say a great deal of du’aa’ therein.” (Narrated by Muslim) Accordingly, it is recommendable and desirable to say as much as one can of du`a during sujud because it is an expected time of answering one’s supplications.
as for prolonging sujud, this matter depends on the situation of both the Imam and people offering Prayer behind. However, it is advisable not to prolong prayer to the extent that people become upset or to offer it in hurry so that people cannot say adhkar or du`a. Tranquility is required and what exceeds the tranquility is subsequent to people’s agreement.