There are many types of Tawaffor Hajj and `Umrah; some of them are wajib (obligatory) without which one’s Hajj or `Umrah will be invalid, while others are voluntary or Sunnah.
First: there is Tawaf Al-Ifadah during Hajj, which is also called Tawaf Az-Ziyarah (Tawaf of visiting). It takes place after the standing in `Arafah, on the day of Al-Adha or after it. It is one of the pillars or essential parts of the Hajj.
Clarifying the types of Tawaf and their ruling, theStanding Committee for Islamic Research and Ifta‘ states:
There are many types of Tawaf around the Ka`bah:
First: there is Tawaf Al-Ifadah during Hajj, which is also called TawafAz-Ziyarah (Tawaf of visiting). It takes place after the standing in `Arafah, on the day of Al-Adha or after it. It is one of the pillars or essential parts of the Hajj.
Tawaf Al-Qudum (Tawaf of arrival) for Hajj. This is done by the pilgrim who has entered ihram for Hajj and by the pilgrim who is doing Qiran (joining `Umrah and Hajj), when he reaches the Ka`bah. It is one of the obligatory duties or Sunnahs of Hajj but there is a difference of scholarly opinion about this.
The Tawaf of `Umrah is one of the pillars or essential parts of `Umrah, without which it is invalid.
Tawaf Al-Wada` (the Farewell Tawaf), which is done after completing the actions of Hajj and when one has decided to leave Makkah. It is obligatory, according to the more correct of the two scholarly opinions, for all pilgrims except women who are menstruating or experiencing post-partum bleeding, and the one who fails to do it must sacrifice an animal that is valid as an udhiyah.
If a person, who vowed to circumambulate the Ka`bah, wants to perform Tawaf to fulfill this vow, it is obligatory to do it.
Each of these Tawafs must include seven circuits, after which the person offers two rak`ahs behind Maqam Ibrahim; if he cannot do so, then he may offer the prayer in any other part of the mosque.