The Fuqahaa’ unanimously agreed on the desirability of eating from voluntary sacrificial offering. As for the sacrifice consecrated to Allah as vow, some jurists forbade the owner eating from it; that he has to distribute all of them to the poor, while others are of the view that it is permissible to eat from the sacrifice for vow, without identifying the amount of portion he is allowed to eat. He then distributes the remaining as it is done during the voluntary sacrifice – gifting it out to friends, and giving it as charity to the poor.
As for the ruling on the doctrine (madhhab) of those who forbid eating from sacrifice consecrated to Allah, it is prohibited to give the rich from it. So, if he gives some portion of the animal to the rich, then he must arrange the equivalent for the part given out to other than the poor and spend it on the poor. This is the most cautious, although the previous opinion is more accommodating.
Mentioned in Mausu’atul Fiqhiyyah:
The Fuqahaa’ agreed that it is desirable (mustahab) for the one who offered sacrifice to eat from it as mentioned by Allah: “And when they are (lifeless) on their sides, then eat from them…” Q22: 36. This verdict is on offering, as though offering and sacrifice are categorized as one. The Prophet (peace be upon him) also said: “when any of you offers a sacrifice, let him eat out of the sacrifice and feed others from it.” And because he is the guest of almighty Allah in these days of Hajj, he may eat from the hospitality of Allah Ta’ala. They also agreed that he can feed others from it. This agreement is on ‘udhyaa that is not obligatory.
But if the sacrifice is mandatory, the ruling on eating from it has different opinions from the jurists. Its obligation rises for the vow and the specificity. To the Hanafis, the fundamental obligation is subject to the condition of wealth, and if the poor bought it for the sake of sacrifice, it is also obligatory for him.
However, according to the Malikis, and the most correct according to the Hanbalis is that he can eat and feed others from it because the vow is judged based on the custom, and what is customary to sacrificial animals in Shariah is to slaughter and eat from them, and the vow does not change anything from the consecrated animal except the ruling.
According to some of the hanbalis, which is apparently the words of imam Ahmad that it is not permissible to eat from the sacrifice consecrated to Allaah as vow based on the fact that it is a promise, and this is the doctrine (madhhab) of the Shafi’is. In another statement of the Shafi’i, if the sacrifice is obligatory with an absolute vow, it is permissible for him to eat from it.
The ruling according to Hanafis as explained by Ibn Abideen:
It is permissible for the rich man to eat from the sacrifice required of him as it is also permissible for him to eat from the sacrifice that he made vow on if he intends that vow explaining the ruling that distinguishes the vow.
As for the poor, if is obliged to buy, then he has one of the two options: the first is that he can eat from it and the other is that it is not permissible. This is what Ibn Abideen mentioned to clarify what Az-Zaylai said that it is not permissible to eat from the sacrifice for vow, but did not give details.
However, Al-Kasaani mentioned in Al-Badai’u “that it is unanimously permitted according to the Hanafi jurists to eat from the sacrifice, whether it is voluntary or obligatory, consecrated or primarily obligatory” end quote.
Dr. Musa Afanah says: I supported that the sacrifice for vow is given in charity as a whole, and he does not eat anything from it in order to avoid disagreement that exists among the schools of thought.