The Druze believe in the divinity of Al-Hakim Bi-Amrillah. They deny all prophets and messengers and believe that Christ is their propagandist, Hamzah. They hate the followers of all other religions and believe that their religion abrogated all previous religions. Therefore, they deny all the rulings, acts of worship, and fundamentals of Islam.

The following elaboration on the Druze and their beliefs is from Al-Mawsu`ah Al-Muyassarah fi al-Adyan wal-Madhahib Al-Mu`asirah:

Druze is an esoteric cult that deifies the Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim Bi-Amrillah. Most of its beliefs are taken from the Isma`ili Shiite sect. It was named after Nashtakin Ad-Darazi. Although it was initiated in Egypt, it quickly moved to Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine. Its beliefs are a mixture of several religions and ideas, which are considered as secrets that may not be divulged; even the Druze themselves cannot learn their creed before the age of 40.

Foundation and Prominent Figures

Al-Hakim Bi-Amrillah is the main figure in the Druze belief. He is the Fatimid caliph whose full name is Abu `Ali Al-Mansur ibn Al-`Aziz Billah ibn Al-Mu`iz lidin-Illah Al-Fatimi. He was born in AH 375 (985 CE) and was murdered in AH 411 (1021 CE). His thinking and behavior were odd, as he was very severe, inconsistent, and envious of people. He did much killing and torture without justifiable reasons.

Hamzah ibn `Ali ibn Muhammad Az-Zuzni (AH 375–430) is the real founder of this creed. He was the one who announced in AH 408 that Al-Hakim was the incarnation of God. He called people to worship him and wrote the books of Druze creeds. According to the Druze, he is a holy figure like the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) is to Muslims.

Muhammad ibn Isma`il Ad-Darazi , also known as Nashtakin, participated with Hamzah in founding the Druze creeds. He hastened in declaring Al-Hakim’s divinity in AH 407, which act turned Hamzah and other people against him. He fled to Ash-Sham (Syria) where he propagated his doctrine. Eventually, the Druze sect, which was connected to his name, appeared although his people cursed him because he acted against the teachings of Hamzah, who plotted his murder in AH 411.

Al-Husain ibn Haidarah Al-Firghani , known as Al-Akhram or Al-Ajda`, was the missionary for Hamzah’s call.

Bahaa Ad-Din Abu Al-Hasan `Ali ibn Ahmad As-Samuqi , known as Ad-Daif (the Guest), was the main person responsible for the propagation of the doctrine in the absence of Hamzah in AH 411. He also authored many of their written materials such as The Letter of Admonition, Reprimand, and Reproof and The Letter of Scolding and Reprimanding, and others. He was the one to close the door on ijtihad (personal reasoning) in the doctrine so as to preserve the fundamentals set by him, Hamzah, and At-Tamimi.

Abu Ibrahim Isma`il ibn Hamid At-Tamimi was Hamzah’s relative by marriage and his close assistant in the call and the next in rank.

Contemporary Leaders of the Druze

  • Kamal Junblat, a Lebanese political leader who founded the Socialist Progressive Party. He was killed in 1977.
  • Walid Junblat, his father’s successor in leading the Druze and the Party.
  • Dr. Najib Al-`Asrawi, Head of the Druze Association in Brazil.
  • `Adnan Bashir, Head of the Druze Association in Australia.
  • Sami Makarim, who participated with Kamal Junblat in writing a n
    umber of publications in defense of the Druze.

Ideas and Beliefs

The Druze believe in the divinity of Al-Hakim Bi-Amrillah. When he died, they said that he was gone and would return.

They deny all prophets and messengers and call them devils.

They believe that Christ is Hamzah, their propagandist.

They hate the followers of all other religions, especially Muslims, and regard it as lawful to take their lives, appropriate their property, and cheat them whenever possible.

They believe that their religion abrogated all previous religions; therefore, they deny all the rulings, acts of worship, and fundamentals of Islam.

Some of their contemporary prominent thinkers went on a pilgrimage to India, pretending that their creeds originated from the wisdom of India.

They believe in the reincarnation of souls, and that the reward and punishment is through the transfer of a person’s soul to a happier or a sadder body.

They do not believe in Paradise and Hellfire, the reward and punishment of the hereafter.

They do not believe in the Noble Qur’an and claim that it was written by Salman Al-Farisi. They have their own scripture, named Al-Munfarid Bi-Dhatihi (The Unique).

They trace their beliefs back to very ancient ages and take pride in affiliating themselves to ancient Pharaohs and ancient Indian sages.

According to the Druze, history started in AH 408 when Hamzah declared the divinity of Al-Hakim.

They believe that the Resurrection is when Al-Hakim returns and leads them in the demolition of the Ka`bah and the conquest of Muslims and Christians all over the world. Afterwards, they will rule the world forever and impose taxes and humiliation on Muslims.

They believe that Al-Hakim sent five prophets: Hamzah, Isma`il, Muhammad Al-Kalimah, Abul-Khair, and Bahaa.

It is illegal for them to marry with a non-Druze, to give charity to people of other religions, or to help them. It is also illegal for a man to have more than one wife or to take back his divorced wife.

The Druze do not accept converts to their religion, nor do they allow any of them to abandon his or her religion.

The contemporary Druze community is divided into two parts, as in earlier times, as far as religion is concerned:

  • Spiritual people: They know the secrets of the cult and are divided into chiefs, wise men, and better men.
  • Materialists: They are concerned with material issues and are divided into emirs (leaders) and ignorant people.

Socially, they do not acknowledge established authorities, but rather the “sheikh of reason” and his deputies rule them according to a system of religious feudalism.

They believe in philosophic ideas such as that their god created the complete mind, through which the complete soul was created, and from which all creatures were created.

They speak ill of the Companions and say, for example, that fahsha’ and munkar (abomination and sin) are Abu Bakr and `Umar (may Allah be pleased with them).

Secrecy is a basis of their creed. Secrecy is practiced not out of piety but because it is a ruling in the fundamentals of their religion.

Mosques and dhikr (remembering Allah) are absent in their areas; however, a Druze may pretend to be a Muslim for some benefits.

A Druze is not taught, or even told, his creed until he is 40. Therefore, he is not charged with its teachings until the age of 40, which is the age of reasoning according to the Druze.

Their Books

Below are some books of the Druze:

  • The holy letters called Rasa’il Al-Hikmah
    (Letters of Wisdom), which are 111 letters written by Hamzah, Bahaa Ad-Din, and At-Tamimi
  • A holy book called Al-Munfarid bi-Dhatihi (The Unique)
  • A book called An-Niqat wa ad-Dawa’ir (Dots and Circles), written by `Abdul-Ghaffar Taqi Ad-Din Al-Ba`qali, killed in AH 900
  • Mithaq Wali Az-Zaman (The Covenant of the Guardian of Time), the covenant by which a Druze is bound when he is taught his creed
  • An-Naqd Al-Khafi (The Hidden Criticism), the book in which Hamzah criticized all rulings of religions especially Islam’s five pillars
  • Adwa‘ `ala Maslak At-Tawhid (Lights on the Path of Monotheism), by Dr. Sami Makarim

Intellectual and Creedal Roots

  • The Druze were influenced by metaphysics, particularly by the Greeks such as Aristotle, Plato, and the followers of Pythagoras. The Druze consider them their spiritual masters.
  • Most of their beliefs are derived from the Isma`ili sect.
  • The Druze were influenced by atheists in believing in the everlasting life.
  • They were influenced by Buddhism in many ideas and beliefs.
  • They were influenced by some philosophers of Persia, India, and ancient pharaohs.

Presence and Areas of Influence

  • Today the Druze live in Lebanon, Syria, and Palestine.
  • Their majority is in Lebanon. A large percent of those living in occupied Palestine have taken the Israeli nationality, and some of them work in the Israeli army.
  • They have associations in Brazil, Australia, and other countries.
  • Their influence is very strong in Lebanon, where they played a major role in the Lebanese civil war. Their enmity toward Muslims is well known.