Euthanasia in modern terminology, refers to facilitating the death of an incurable patient at his own pressing request presented to the treating physicians. There are various types of euthanasia and each type has its own ruling. However, all Muslim scholars agree that killing a person to reduce his pain or suffering from sickness is not allowed in Islam. Having said this, we can say that if a number of medical experts decide that there is no hope for a certain patient to recover, then it could be permissible for them to stop the medication.
Dr. Muzammil Siddiqi, President of the Fiqh Council of North America, states the following: Islam considers human life sacred. Life is to be protected and promoted as much as possible. It is neither permissible in Islam to kill another human being, nor even to kill one’s own self (suicide). Killing is allowed only in a declared just war situation when the enemy comes to attack, then killing of the enemy is allowed for self-defense. The court of law may pass a death sentence against a person as a punishment for some crimes such as premeditated murder or other serious crimes. However, there is no provision in Islam for killing a person to reduce his pain or suffering from sickness.
It is the duty of the doctors, patient’s relatives and the state to take care of the sick and to do their best to reduce the pain and suffering of the sick, but they are not allowed under any circumstances to kill the sick person.
If, however, a number of medical experts determine that a patient is in a terminal condition and there is no hope for his/her recovery, then it could be permissible for them to stop the medication. If the patient is on life support, it may be permissible, with due consultation and care, to decide to switch off the life support machine and let the nature take its own time. Under no condition it is permissible to induce death to a patient.