Shortening the prayer and breaking of fast for the traveler in Ramadan
It is well known that shortening of the prayer is one of the things permitted to the traveler as Allah SWA says: ( And when you journey in the earth there is no sin on you if you shorten the prayer, if you fear that those who disbelieve will cause you harm…) [Al-Nisa: 101]. The Traveler is also allowed to break his fast earlier as it came in the ayah: (But if any of you is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed number (Should be made up) from days later) [Al-Baqarah: 185].
Abu Dawood narrated that the Prophet ﷺ said: Allah has waived for the traveler fasting, and half of the prayer. This is complying by all the rulings and regulations set down by the scholars for the use of this privilege.
Travelling may be temporary or permanent. Permanent travel, has two meanings: the first being that he has his family and everything he needs with him, and the second is that he does not have his family with him but he travels a lot, or his job requires travelling, for example pilots, train conductors, and captains of ships.
Permanent travel allows the privilege of shortening the prayer and breaking the fast.
As for the one who is continuously travelling and has his family and everything he needs with him and he is like a resident, then it is not permissible for him to shorten the prayer or break the fast in Ramadan, except if the fast is harming him in some way that may cause serious damage, then he may break his fast.
It has come in Al-Mughni by Ibn Qudama, (Vol. 2 Page 14), in the Hanbali Jurisprudence that Al Athram said: I heard Ahmad bin Hanbal- when he was asked whether the navigator of a ship should shorten his prayer and break his fast on the ship, and he replied: If the ship is his home then he should complete and continue his fast. He was asked: And how can it be his home? He said: When he doesn’t have a home other than it, and he has his family on it and he is a permanent resident of the ship. This opinion was also reported from ‘Ataa.
It has come in the explanation of Al-Sharqawi of “Al-Tahreer” (Vol. 1 Page 441) in the Shafi’i Jurisprudence, that it is not permissible for the one who is continuously travelling to break his fast, because it leads to leaving out the obligatory acts completely, except if he can make them up on other days during his travels,
As for the one who travels a lot due to his job occupation, and he does not have his family with him, then he is allowed to shorten the prayer and break the fast, because there will be days where he will be home where he can make up the fasts. Meanwhile, shortening of the prayer is an enforced ruling according to Hanafis. As a result, whoever performs the complete prayer while traveling, it is not permissible for him to combine between two prayers.